Embodied GHG of missing middle

Residential building form and strategies for more efficient housing In this paper, we quantify the impact of residential form on embodied emissions. Specifically, we look at the reduction potential of missing middle (low-rise multi-unit) housing, compare missing...

Embodied greenhouse gas reductions in single-family dwellings

Reducing embodied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the construction of buildings is increasingly recognized as necessary to meet medium- and long-term climate targets. The focus of efforts to reduce embodied GHG have been on using lower GHG intensity materials through material switching (e.g., wood vs concrete buildings) or changing the manufacturing of materials to reduce their GHG intensity (e.g., blast oxygen furnace to electric arc furnace in steel manufacturing). There has been much less attention directed toward the potential to reduce embodied GHG emissions by reducing the amount of material used for the construction of buildings. This study estimates the embodied GHG emission intensity of single-family dwellings (SFD) in Toronto, Canada, Perth, Australia, and Luzon, Philippines using a carbon neutral approach (excluding biogenic carbon) and focusing on the product stage (A1-A3).